Aquaculture deals with the harvesting of plants, algae, fish and other living organisms in all types of water environments. It is also known as aqua farming. It involves in growth of fauna & flora which grow in aquatic environment and its improvement, multiplication
Biological oceanography is the study of life in the oceans—the abundance, distribution, and production of marine species along with the processes that govern species' spread and development. Biological oceanography mostly focuses on the microorganisms within the ocean, looking at how they are affected by their environment and how that affects larger marine creatures and their ecosystem. Biological oceanography also investigates the role of microbes in food webs, and how humans impact the ecosystems in the oceans
Marine biology is about the life in the sea and the environment on which it depends. This includes marine plants, animals and other organisms, both vertebrate and invertebrate, in deep oceans, shallow seas and the laboratory. Aim of marine biology is to improve and to understand the marine world and to predict changes in ecosystems affected by human and natural disturbances. Marine biology is a broad-ranging career.
Physical Oceanography is the study of the Physics of Marine systems. It includes the distribution of temperature and salinity, water mass formation and movement, ocean currents, interior and surface mixing, energy inputs and dissipation, surface and internal waves, and surface and internal tides. Physical oceanography focus on understanding & describing the movement patterns of ocean circulation and fluid motion, along with the distribution of its properties. As it is a dynamic fluid it can be studied as a spatial scale, from the centimeter scales relevant to turbulent micro structure through the many thousand kilometer scales of the ocean gyres and global overturning circulation.
Global warming is a significant increase in the temperature of the planet attributed by the greenhouse gases emissions and their rise in concentrations in the atmosphere.
Climate change is the change in patterns of the wind, precipitation and over all global rise of temperature acts as a main phenomenon in the climate change, which makes the earth inhabitable in the near future as the global warming is interlinked to climate change
Satellite Oceanography is the study of ocean through satellite. Satellites can take measurements over the entire Earth's surface in just a few days. As a result, oceanographers are able to study, which affect entire oceans or even the entire planet. This also makes satellite measurements ideal for scientists who study the Earth's climate, El Niño or the monsoons in the Indian Ocean. Satellites allow scientists to get measurements in places which are hard to reach by ship, such as Antarctica. Oceanography is the scientific study of the oceans
Marine Technology is the study about the design of ships. A large ship is an independently functioning village and at the same time one of the largest machines in the world. Marine technology programs, aspires many students to become marine technologists with proficient in the knowledge and skills required of scientific support technicians. As far as marine technician programs are concerned, students learn hands-on to trouble shoot, service and repair four- and two-stroke outboards, stern drive, rigging, fuel & lube systems, electrical including diesel engines. Marine technology program has classroom training aboard ships, such as how to use and maintain electronic navigation devices, physical and chemical measuring instruments, sampling devices, data acquisition, reduction system aboard ocean-going and smaller vessels, among other advanced equipment.
Oceans around the world has been degraded. Evidence shows that human activities, including intense fishing around the world, are changing ocean ecosystems beyond their natural state. According to scientific studies, important species like fish, shellfish, and other species are declining in many places. A recent study on the oceans has mapped the total human impact on the seas for the first time has revealed that the picture is far worse than the scientists imagined. 40% of the oceans in the world has been heavily affected by human activities, including fishing, coastal development and pollution from shipping. Severely affected areas are the North Sea, South and East China Seas, Caribbean, Mediterranean, Red Sea, the Gulf, the Bering Sea, the East Coast of North America and the Western Pacific.
The Marine ecology deals with the marine life habitat, various organisms and their interaction in between them and their surrounding factors which are needed for the survival and able to sustain for the near future. The ecological crisis is quite disturbing for the marine life for survival, birth. Preventive measures and new way approaches should be considered and implemented in preventing the marine life from the intrusions of man and other factors.
This can be achieved with the regulation of unlimited fisheries, land based pollution and industrial effluents which are entering into the sea, Shore based and ship borne pollution, drilling and rig operations. It should also promote the projects which supply green electricity by investing in the wind power plant, and researching on marine biotechnology.
Hydrology, is which treats all phases of the earth's water, is a subject of great importance for people and their environment. Applications of hydrology is practically used in many aspects as the design and operations of hydraulic structures, water supply, waste water treatment and disposal, irrigation, drainage, hydro power generation, flood control, navigation, soil erosion, sediment and salinity control, pollution abatement, recreational use of water, aqua and wildlife protection. The importance of applied hydrology is to analyse the problems involved and to provide guidance for the planning and management of water resources.
Hydrogeology is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust
Coastal oceanography is defined as the combined study of physics, chemistry, ecology, and geology of the “coastal ocean.” The “coastal ocean” basically encompasses the 200 nautical miles (NM) wide Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), a political concept introduced through the United Nations Law of the Sea Treaty (UNLOS) that has practical consequences for ocean resource management, both for exploitation and conservation. It also has consequences for the sponsorship of basic and applied research, and the development and implementation of operational observing and modelling systems. Furthermore, utilization of the EEZ as a defining principle for the coastal ocean is useful scientifically because it more or less coincides (not by chance) with the continental margin; that is, the continental shelf, continental slope, and continental rise that serve to structure the dynamics of the coastal ocean. Usually the estuaries, coastal lagoons, Great Lakes, and inland seas are also included in the definition of the coastal ocean. The marginal and semi enclosed seas are special cases of coastal oceans and are thus treated as well.
Marine geology or geological oceanography is the study of the history and structure of the ocean floor. It involves geophysical, geochemical, sedimentological and paleontological investigations of the ocean floor and coastal zone. Marine geology has strong ties to geophysics and to physical oceanography. This includes how the Earth was formed, how the Earth has changed since it was formed, the materials that make up the Earth, and the processes that act on it. Marine Geology focuses on areas affected by our oceans including the deep ocean floor, the shallower slopes and shelves that surround the continents, and coastal areas like beaches and estuaries.
Marine Pharmacognosy is a sub-field of Pharmacognosy, which is mainly concerned with the naturally occurring substances of medicinal value from marine. It's not a new area for Pharmacognosy, but it has been used in the early civilizations of Greece, Japan, China and India have explored marine life as a source of drugs. Algae’s like substances like Agar, alginic acid, carrageenan, protamine sulphate, spermaceti cod and halibut liver oils are the marine’s medicinal products of the oceans that cover more than 70% of the aquifer and contain over 300,000 invertebrate and algal species. Seaweeds have been used as crude drugs in the treatment of iodine deficiency state such as goitre etc. Some seaweed is also used in treatment of anemia during pregnancy. Seaweeds are also used as dressing materials, ointments and gynaecology. For example, a red alga phylum Porphyra atropurpurea have been used in Hawaii to dress wounds and burns, Darville Antarctica to treat scabies in New Zealand.
Coral Reefs are very different of all marine ecosystems. They teem with life, with perhaps one-quarter of all ocean species depending on reefs for food and shelter. Coral reefs cover just a tiny fraction (less than one percent) of the earth’s surface and less than two percent of the ocean bottom because they are so diverse, coral reefs are frequently called the rain forests of the sea. Coral reefs are also very important to people. The value of coral reefs has been estimated at about 30 billion U.S. dollars every year, providing food, protection of shorelines, jobs based on tourism, and even medicines. Unfortunately, there is a greatest threat to coral reefs by the over fishing and destructive fishing, pollution, warming, changing ocean chemistry, and invasive species are all taking a huge toll. Reefs have been entirely destroyed in some places, and reefs today are a pale shadow of what they once were in many places.
Marine Genomics is a scientific discipline that involves the application of genomic techniques to investigate the phenotype of marine organisms and the function of marine ecosystems. For example, metagenomics approaches are now deemed essential for reconstructing the microbial communities that drive nutrient cycling in marine ecosystems, transcriptomic approaches are increasingly being utilized to understand how marine organisms respond to environmental stress at the molecular level, and population genomic approaches are being used to investigate the microevolution of animal populations.
Fish pathology deals with the diseases and parasites that effects fish ordinary living. Fish pathology studies fish defensive mechanism against diseases and its treatment. Fish pathology enables the study of the disease and disease-causing pathogens in aquatic organisms, which in turn provide us the knowledge about the disease and disorders caused in humans who feed on seafood along with its cure. This also includes about the host-pathogen bacterial relationships, studies of fish pathogens, pathophysiology, diagnostic methods, therapy, epidemiology, and descriptions of new diseases.
Marine Ecotoxicology is the study of the contamination of ecosystems and of the mechanisms of contaminant the acquisition and effects in living organisms at all biological levels (from molecules to ecosystem). Marine Ecotoxicology will identify the contamination that occurs in nature, concentration, distribution, sources. It is to determine the dynamics of the contaminants, fate of contaminants in abiotic and biotic compartments of the ecosystem. It is to assess the effects of contaminants on individuals, populations, and communities. It is to evaluate the impact on human health and activities (food resources, commercial interests, nature preservation); conflicts may arise between different interest (economic, social, well-being).
One of the biggest threats for the marine pollution is man-made pollution. Waste products like plastics and other residential waste is destroying the ocean, discharge of pesticides and industrial chemicals eventually comes into the sea with devastating consequences for marine life and the habitats they depend on. Shipping accidents and oil spills add additional toxins to the mix. It is estimated that a staggering 80 per cent of marine pollution originates on land. Land-based pollutants – such as agricultural run-off and nutrients from sewage outflows - are contributing to ocean ‘dead zones’ – areas which can no longer sustain life because they have low or zero oxygen
The ocean contains substances like carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and phosphorus. They determine the composition of seawater that affects Earth´s climate by a number of physical, biological, chemical and geological processes. The field of ocean biogeochemistry examines the cycles of these substances and their interaction with other components of the Earth system. Due to the risen greenhouse effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), questions regarding the carbon cycle received augmented scientific attention over the last decades. The ocean exchanges CO2 with the atmosphere and acts along with the terrestrial ecosystems as the most important CO2 sink, when atmospheric CO2 concentrations are increased over extended periods. On short time scales, CO2 and the nutrients phosphorus and nitrogen of plants (phytoplankton) are bound in the ocean surface and are transported to the deep ocean. The total amount of carbon dissolved in the ocean is approximately 50 times higher than the atmospheric carbon concentration, and about 20 times higher than the carbon stored in soil.
Marine biotechnology is also refereed as “blue biotechnology” that which, exploits the diversity found in marine environments. Marine biotechnology is about the creation of products and processes from marine organisms through the application of biotechnology, molecular and cell biology, and bioinformatics. Marine biotechnology is the field of science that deals with ocean exploration for the invention of new pharmaceutical drugs, chemical products, enzymes, and other products and processes. It also deals with the advanced technology of aquaculture and seafood safety, bioremediation, biofuels, among others.
Ocean engineering is a field of study that is defined as an advanced part of the other marine technology studies like maritime engineering or offshore engineering or marine electronic technology. If defined as a branch of technological studies that deal with the design and operations of man-made systems in the ocean and other marine bodies.
Marine energy is also referred to as ocean energy, ocean power and marine hydro kinetic energy (MHK) encompasses various means through which energy can be harnessed from our oceans. There are various types of marine energies, that which includes wave, tidal stream, tidal range and offshore wind, as well as ocean thermal, ocean current, run-of-river and salinity.
Deep sea Discoveries is much about the deep ocean that still remains a mystery. Imagining life on the deep, dark ocean floor evokes a world of intrigue and possibility, a land on planet Earth that has yet to be fully explored. Flesh eating crustacean, Luminescent brittle star, Blob fish, coffin fish, sea pig, Corallimorpharia, tipod fish, Sipuncula (aka peanut worm, Red spiny crab, Brittle star are the new discoveries in deep sea. Corals, sponges, and other living structures that decorate the seafloor support commercial species such as Pacific cod and other ground fish as well as various marine animals like octopuses and sea stars. It is therefore important for us to continue deep sea research and take a precautionary approach to managing activities that could threaten the health of these vital ecosystems and ultimately, the health of the world’s oceans. Sadly, this mysterious place could be under threat before mankind even has time to discover what lives and thrives there.
Marine chemistry is the study of the chemical composition and chemical processes of the world’s oceans. Some of the key processes studied are the cycling of: inorganic and organic carbon; nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus; and trace elements, such as iron. Marine chemistry is a sub-branch of Marine Science. It is a second-level interdisciplinary between oceanography and chemistry. Marine chemistry is referred as the study of the chemical composition, the distribution and the chemical properties of substances and chemical processes in each part of the ocean, as well as the chemistry & about the development and utilization of marine resources. It plays a bond role among each branch of Marine Science.
Coastal Benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water, for example, an ocean, lake, or stream, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers. Sea creatures that lives in this zone are called benthos and include microorganisms (e.g., microscopic organisms and growths) as well as larger invertebrates, such as crustaceans and polychaetes. Creatures live in close association with the substrate and many are permanently attached to the base. As the benthic system controls energy in the aquatic ecosystems, considers have been made of the mechanisms of the benthic zone to a better understanding of the ecosystem. Initial scientific research is being made on benthic gatherings to see whether they can be utilized as markers of healthy aquatic ecosystems. Benthic gatherings in urbanized coastal regions are not practically comparable to benthic accumulations in untouched areas.
Micro plastics is a small pieces of plastic, less than 5 mm (0.2 inch) in length, that occur in the environment as a consequence of plastic pollution. Micro plastics are present in a large variety of products, from cosmetics to synthetic clothing to plastic bags and bottles. Many of these products readily enter the environment as wastes products. Micro plastics contains of carbon and hydrogen atoms bound together in polymer chains. Other chemicals, such as phthalates, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), are typically also present in micro plastics, and many of these chemical additives leach out of the plastics after entering the environment
It’s an ecosystem in a body of water. Different communities of organisms which totally rely on each other and on their environment in the aquatic environment.
Life on aquatic is of two type
Oceanography is a science which includes the study of different aspects of nature and formation of ocean basins, and movement of water in the basins. It includes many aspects like marine life their environment and formation of currents, waves, geophysical fluid dynamics, plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor and its properties with in and around the boundaries. Oceanography covers a wide range of topics, including marine life and ecosystems, ocean circulation, plate tectonics and the geology of the seafloor, and the chemical and physical properties of the ocean
Climate change is exacerbating many of these hazards, especially the ongoing rise in sea level, and already changing the frequency and magnitude of damaging events. Most coastal hazards are grouped into five main impacts, usually with several contributing processes causing an event or cumulative harm:
Ocean gets warmer this too has an effect on the seafloor. Because of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, this warming will have an effect on the bicarbonate buffer of the ocean. The ocean is being disproportionately impacted by increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from human activities. his causes changes in water temperature, ocean acidification and deoxygenation, leading to changes in oceanic circulation and chemistry, rising sea levels, increased storm intensity, as well as changes in the diversity and abundance of marine species. Degradation of coastal and marine ecosystems threatens the physical, economic and food security of local communities, as well as resources for global businesses
Global warming, together with resultant changes in food and water supplies, can indirectly cause increases in a range of adverse health outcomes, including malnutrition, diarrhea, injuries, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, and water-borne and insect-transmitted diseases
Quality amount of water which is required for the population to endure a good livelihood and to fortify protection against water pollution and deadly diseases associated with it and look after the ecosystem and its preservance.
Water sustainability includes four important elements
It mostly focuses on the water consumption without letting go off present and future requirements
Atmospheric science is the study which relatively uses physical and chemistry fields which results in knowing the earth internal structure its atmosphere and its dynamics. Use of vector analysis and differential calculations are vital tools used in this arena to get a proper understanding about the earth atmosphere and its effects on other and its own systems which is related to wide range of aspects.
Meteorology is the branch which is associated with the earth atmosphere in predicting the weather conditions and uses scientific principles by understanding how atmosphere effects the life on earth.
It is the study of the sea floor, sea surface, coast and their role in the earth climate system. Ocean physical processes span a wide range of space and time scales, from turbulence at scales of millimeters and seconds to global circulations at scales of thousands of kilometers and centuries or longer. The atmospheric sciences help in analyzing the changes in the climate and weather which is needed for the forestry and agriculture.
These zones acts as a bridge between the terrain and sea. This zones have a unique habitats respected to the species in the ecosystem. These zone are economically beneficial and provide a greater tourism experience this could be achieved in a healthy way. Due to the debris and contaminating the resources the spark is gone and coastal zone species and its ecosystems are being placed under risk.
Oceanography is a science which includes the study of different aspects of nature and form ocean basins, and movement of water in the basins. It includes many aspects like marine life their environment and formation of currents, waves, geophysical fluid dynamics, plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor and its properties with in and around the boundaries
Oceans are the lifeblood of planet Earth. They flow over nearly three-quarters of our planet, and hold 97% of the planet's water. They produce more than half of the oxygen in the atmosphere, and absorb the most carbon from it. Most of the rain that falls on land comes from the tropical ocean. The ocean is the primary driver of weather and climate
Ocean's influence on the Earth system:
Marine biodiversity is an aggregation of highly inter-connected ecosystem components or features, encompassing all levels of biological organization from genes, species, populations to ecosystems, with the diversity of each level having structural and functional attributes
Coastal environments contain diverse habitats that support an abundance of marine life. Some examples of marine and coastal habitats include mangrove forests; coral reefs; sea grass beds; estuaries in coastal areas; hydrothermal vents; and seamounts and soft sediments on the ocean floor a few kilometers below the surface
Marine Invertebrates are the Animals that lack backbones are known as invertebrates. Over 98% of species on Earth are invertebrates that rely on other strategies than a backbone for support such as hydrostatic pressure, exoskeletons, shells, and in some, even glass spicules The most common marine invertebrates are sponges, cnidarians, marine worms, lophophorates, mollusks, arthropods, echinoderms and the hemichordates
Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence. They include animals such as seals, whales, manatees, sea otters and polar bears. They are an informal group, unified only by their reliance on marine environments for feeding
The habitat of deep-water corals, also known as cold-water corals, extends to deeper, darker parts of the oceans than tropical corals, ranging from near the surface to the abyss, beyond 2,000 metres where water temperatures may be as cold as 4 °C. Deep-water corals belong to the Phylum Cnidaria and are most often stony corals, but also include black and horny corals and soft corals including the Gorgonians (sea fans).
Polar Oceanography is an integrated synthesis of the biological, physical, geological, and chemical processes that occur in the polar oceans
Geological oceanography is the study of Earth beneath the oceans. A geological oceanographer studies the topography, structure, and geological processes of the ocean floor to discover how the Earth and oceans were formed and how ongoing processes may change them in the future
The geological information of the earth helps in the forecasting of natural hazards (volcano eruptions, earth quakes, landslides) with which the life can be preserved. The applied geology gives us the information about the earth rocks their potentiality and to determine how they exist and their effect on mankind. It helps in evaluating the local, regional and global change, on and below the surface of earth.
Geophysics deals with the physical process and properties of the earth and it surrounding environment by using quantitative methods for their analysis refers only to the geological applications. It refers with the gravitational force and magnetic field of the earth and its internal structure and dynamics and solar terrestrial relationship and comparable problems associated with the planets.
Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans
Paleoceanography is the study of the history of the oceans in the geologic past with regard to circulation, chemistry, biology, geology and patterns of sedimentation and biological productivity
The aim of paleoenvironmental analysis is to reconstruct the biological, chemical, and physical nature of the environment at the collection site at the time of deposition, based on the rock's paleontological record.
Aquaculture resources comprise a wide variety of animals and plants (and their genetic resources) such as fish; crustaceans, molluscs, seaweeds and other aquatic plants. The most harvested species are oysters and carps.
Geomicrobiology is the interdisciplinary study of the interactions of microorganisms and earth materials (including soil, sediment, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, minerals, and rocks)
Paleontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch. It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments
Petrology is the branch of geology that studies rocks and the conditions under which they form. Petrology has three subdivisions: igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary petrology
Volcanology is the study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological, geophysical and geochemical phenomena. The term volcanology is derived from the Latin word vulcan. Vulcan was the ancient Roman god of fire
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts